Risk Factors & Prevention
Treatment & Surgery |
Pancreatic Cancer Clinic
Pancreatic cancer is usually a cancer of older people (average age of patients is 71 years),
however some patients can develop cancer at an early age, such as 40. Incidence varies by race,
gender, and geography. The disease occurs more often in African Americans than in whites and in
men more than in women; global incidence rates vary approximately 30-fold. African Americans have
the highest pancreatic cancer rate in the world. The reason for these risk factors is not yet known.
There are four clear risk factors for pancreatic cancer: family history, cigarette smoking,
long-standing diabetes, and hereditary and chronic pancreatitis.
This risk factor is associated with approximately 25 percent of pancreatic cancers. People who smoke
for twenty years or more have double the risk of those who have never smoked. Smoking has an even
greater effect in families that inherit pancreatic cancer---increasing the odds of developing cancer
by up to 7 fold and patients who smoke tend to develop cancer at an earlier age. This cancerous effect
of smoking is also seen in patients with chronic pancreatitis or hereditary pancreatitis.
Pancreatic cancer runs in families, and people in affected families have about a three-fold risk compared
with the general population. About five percent of patients with pancreatic cancer report a family history
of the disease. Hereditary syndromes would be seen in families that inherit pancreatic cancer along with
other additional cancers. Examples of these additional cancers include: cancers of the colon, breast, lung,
bladder, uterine, and melanoma. In addition to the families that inherit cancer, some families inherit chronic
inflammation of the pancreas (hereditary pancreatitis); these patients are prone to developing pancreatic
cancer. Many families simply inherit pancreatic cancer, with no other cancers in the family and no history
There is about a two-fold increase in risk of pancreatic cancer among people who were diagnosed with diabetes
as adults. This observation suggests that diabetes may be an independent risk factor for pancreatic cancer,
as well as a possible consequence of the disease. The mechanism involved, however, is unclear.
Pancreatic cancer risk among individuals with hereditary pancreatitis or nonhereditary chronic pancreatitis
is about 50 times and 16 to 20 times higher, respectively, than those without pancreatitis.
Studies also have implicated a number of other factors, including diet and nutrition, heavy alcohol
consumption, other medical conditions, and certain occupational exposures, but these findings have been
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a powerful magnet linked to a computer. The MRI machine is very large,
with space for the patient to lie in a tunnel inside the magnet. The machine measures the body's response
to the magnetic field, and the computer uses this information to make detailed pictures of areas inside
the body. The information gained is similar to the information gained at ERCP, except that it is not quite
as sensitive in picking up very small changes. Samples of the tumor can not be obtained at this procedure.
Fruit and vegetable intake may have a protective effect against pancreatic cancer. The effect appears to be
stronger for vegetables, particularly cruciferous vegetables. Folate is a nutrient is associated with a
lower risk of panreatic cancer. Folate can be found in leafy green vegetables. Increased risk has been
associated with high intake of meat, fat, and carbohydrates and with elevated body mass index and caloric
intake. A recent study found an interaction between body mass index and caloric intake, suggesting that
caloric intake in excess of that required to maintain energy balance (e.g. being overweight) may increase risk.
Alcohol consumption at the level typically consumed by the U.S. population does not appear to increase risk;
however, approximately 10 studies have reported an increased risk associated with heavy alcohol consumption.
Organochlorine compounds (DDT, DDE, and PCBs) have been associated with elevated risk in a small number of
studies. Dry cleaning workers have an increased risk of pancreatic cancer, possibly due to exposure to
chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents.
Smoking cessation appears to reduce risk. A few recent studies suggest that risk may revert
to the level of nonsmokers after long-term cessation.